Medical ultrasound is an imaging technique developed by cardiologist Inge Edler and physicist Carl Hellmuth Hertz at Lund University in Sweden in the 1950s. Routine ultrasound examination of pregnancy is very common worldwide
All pregnant women in Sweden are offered ultrasound to determine the duration of pregnancy, number of foetuses and placenta position. Moreover, it can give information about possible foetal malformation and its gender. The Swedish health care system is linked to a social insurance, which means that anyone who lives or works in Sweden has access to heavily subsidised health care. The fertility rate in Sweden is 1.9 births per woman.